Kirsten van der Zee, Samantha Filby, Corné van Walbeek, (2022), When Cigarette Sales Suddenly Become Illegal: Evidence From an Online Survey of South African Smokers During COVID-19 LockdownNicotine & Tobacco Research, 2022, doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntac067 (In Press).

Micheal Kofi Boachie, Mutsapha Immurana, Ernest Tingum Ngeh, Noreen Dadirai Mdege and Hana Ross (2022). Effect of relative income price on smoking initiation among adolescents in Ghana: evidence from pseudo-longitudinal dataBMJ Open. ISSN 2044-6055 (In Press).

Arti Singh, Hana Ross, Fiona Dobbie, Allen Gallagher, Tarja Kinunuen, Divine D. Logo, Olivia A. Boateng, Anna Gilmore, Linda Bauld, Ellis Owusu-Dabo. Illicit cigarette sales – Empty pack survey in Ghana. BMJ Tobacco Control, 2022 (in progress).

Arti Singh, Fiona Dobbie, Allen Gallagher, Divine D. Logo, Olivia A. Boateng, Anna Gilmore, Hana Ross, Linda Bauld, Ellis Owusu-Dabo. Illicit tobacco trade in Ghana: insights from a mixed method study. BMJ Tobacco Control, 2022 (in progress).

Micheal Kofi Boachie, Hana Ross, John Kwaku Agyemang, Mustapha Immurana (2022). Cigarette prices and smoking experimentation in Sierra Leone: an exploratory study. Tobacco Use Insights, Volume 15: 1–8. (in print).


Wency Bui Kher Thinng, Hana Ross, and Norashidah Mohamed Nor. The Magnitude of Illicit Cigarette Trade in Malaysia. Empirical Evidence Compared to Industry studies. Tobacco Control 2021 (in review).

Estelle Dauchy and Hana Ross. Illicit Cigarettes in Ethiopia. Nicotine & Tobacco Research. 2021 (in review).

Micheal Kofi Boachie, Mustapha Immurana, Ernest N. Tingum, Noreen Dadirai Mdege, Hana Ross. The association between relative income price and smoking initiation among adolescents in Ghana. BMJ Open. 2021 (in review).

Vaida LiutkutÄ—–Gumarov and Hana Ross. Tobacco industry compliance with the EU track and tracing system in Lithuania. Tobacco Control. 2021 (in print).

Amina Khan, Fiona Dobbie, Kamran Siddiqi, Saeed Ansari, Abdullah Sonnet, Romaina Iqbal, Zohaib Khan, Salman Sohail, Mona Kanaan, Ziauddin Islam, Rumana Huque, Melanie Boeckmann, Hana Ross. Illicit Cigarette Trade in the Cities of Pakistan: Comparing Findings between the Consumer and Waste Recycle Store Surveys. Tobacco Control. 2021.

Hana Ross and Luk Joossens. Tackling Illicit Tobacco during COVID-19 Pandemic. Tobacco Induced Diseases. 2021;19(June):47; DOI: https://doi.org/10.18332/tid/137086

Little, M., Ross, H., Bakhturidze, G., Kachkachishvili, I. 2021. Analysis of the illicit tobacco market in Georgia in response to fiscal and non-fiscal tobacco control measures. Tobacco Control Published Online First: 10 June 2021. doi: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2020-056404

Vellios, N., van Walbeek, C., Ross, H. 2021. Measuring the illicit cigarette market in the absence of pack security features: a case study of South Africa. Tobacco Control. Published Online First: 25 February 2021. doi: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2020-056117.

Lavares, M.P., Ross, H., Francisco, A., et al. 2021 Analysing the trend of illicit tobacco in the Philippines from 1998 to 2018. Tobacco Control. Published Online First: 19 February 2021. doi: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2020-056253.

Filby, S., van der Zee, K., van Walbeek, C. 2021. The temporary ban on tobacco sales in South Africa: lessons for endgame strategies. Tobacco Control. Published Online First: 20 January 2021. doi: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2020-056209.


Nyagwachi, A, Chelwa, G, Van Walbeek, C, 2020. The effect of tobacco- and alcohol-control policies on household spending patterns in Kenya: An approach using matched difference in differences. Social Science and Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2020.113029.

Abdullah, S. M., Huque, R., Bauld, L., Ross, H., Gilmore, A., John, R. M., Dobbie, F., and Siddiqi, K. 2020. Estimating the magnitude of illicit cigarette trade in Bangladesh: protocol for a mixed-methods study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2020, 17, 4791; doi:10.3390/ijerph17134791.

Tesche, J., Van Walbeek, C. 2020. Measuring the effects of the new ECOWAS and WAEMU tobacco excise tax directives. Tobacco Control September, 0:1-7 doi: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2020-055843.

Boachie, M. K. and Ross, H. 2020. Determinants of smoking intensity in South Africa: Evidence from township communities. Preventive Medicine Reports, 19(101099) September. doi.org/10.1016/j.pmedr.2020.101099.

Chingosho, R., Dare, C., van Walbeek, C. 2020. Tobacco farming and current debt status among smallholder farmers in Manicaland province in Zimbabwe. Tobacco Control, August. doi: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2020-055825.

Boachie, M.K., Rossouw, L. and Ross, H. 2020. The economic cost of smoking in South Africa, 2016. Nicotine & Tobacco Research. 2020. doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntaa162. 

Masa-ud, A.G.A., Chelwa, G., and Van Walbeek, C. 2020. Does tobacco expenditure influence household spending in Ghana? Evidence from the GHANA 2012/2013 Living Standard SurveyTobacco Induced Diseases18 (June):48. doi.org/10.18332/tid/120936.

Mukong, A.K. and Tingum, E.N. 2020. The demand for cigarettes: New evidence from South AfricaDevelopment Southern Africa37(1), pp.40-54. doi.org/10.1080/0376835X.2019.1640108. 

Nyagwachi, A., Chelwa, G. and Van Walbeek, C. 2020. The effect of tobacco- and alcohol-control policies on household spending patterns in Kenya: An approach using matched difference in differences. Social Science and Medicine. Vol 256, July 2020, 113029. doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2020.113029.

Stoklosa M. 2020. Prices and cross-border cigarette purchases in the EU: evidence from demand modelling. Tobacco Control 2020;29:55-60.

Stoklosa, M. Cahn, Z., Liber, A., et al. 2020. Effect of IQOS introduction on cigarette sales: evidence of decline and replacement. Tobacco Control 2020;29:381-387.

Tingum, E.N., Mukong, A.K. and Mdege, N. 2020. The effects of price and non-price policies on cigarette consumption in South AfricaTobacco Induced Diseases, 18 (July):62. doi.org/10.18332/tid/123424.

Van der Zee, K.T., Vellios, N.G., Van Walbeek, C.P. and Ross, H. 2020. The illicit cigarette market in six South African townships. Tobacco ControlPublished Online First: 11 March 2020. doi: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2019-055136.

Vellios, N. and Van der Zee, K. 2020. Dataset on cigarette smokers in six South African townships. Data in Brief. Available online 2 September 2020, 106260.


Berthet Valdois, J., Van Walbeek, C., Ross, H., Soondram, H., Jugumath, B., Chan Sun, M., and Mohee, D. 2019. Tobacco industry tactics in response to cigarette excise tax increases in Mauritius (brief report), Tobacco Control.  Published Online First: 04 November 2019. doi: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2019-055196

Chelwa, G. and Van Walbeek, C. 2019. Does cigarette demand respond to price increases in Uganda? Price elasticity estimates using Uganda’s National Panel Survey and Deaton’s method, BMJ Open, 9: e026150.

Chisha, Z., Janneh, M.L. and Ross, H. 2019. Consumption of legal and illegal cigarettes in the Gambia, BMJ Tobacco Control special supplement on illicit trade, May.

Dauchy, E. and Ross, H. The Effect of Price and Tax Policies on the Decision to Smoke in Kenya. 2019. Addiction, 114, 1249–1263; doi: 10.1111/add.14623

Dobbie, F., Mdege, N., Davidson, F., Siddiqi, K., Collin, J., Huque, R., Owusudabo, E., Van Walbeek, C. and Bauld, L. 2019.  Building capacity for applied research to reduce tobacco-related harm in low- and middle-income countries: the Tobacco Control Capacity Programme, Journal of Global Health Reports 3. Vol. 3, 2019 August 01, 2019.

Little, M., Ross, H., Bakhturidze, G. et al. 2019. Illicit Tobacco Trade in Georgia: Prevalence and Perceptions. Tobacco Control. 0:1–7.

Nguyen, M.T., Dao, S.T., Nguyen, N.Q., Bowling, M., Ross, H. and So, A.D. 2019 Illicit Cigarette Consumption and Government Revenue Loss in Vietnam: Evidence from a Primary Data Approach. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, June 2019, 16, 1960; doi:10.3390/ijerph16111960.

Riley, S., Vellios, N. and van Walbeek, C.P. 2019. An economic analysis of the demand for cannabis: some results from South Africa. Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy. doi: 10.1080/09687637.2019.1581139.

Ross, H., Vellios, N., Batmunkh, T., Enkhtsogt, M. and Rossouw, L. 2019. Impact of tax increases on illicit cigarette trade in Mongolia. Tobacco Control. 2019;0:1–5. doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2018-054904

Rossouw, L. and Vellios, N. 2019. Dataset on discarded cigarette packs in Mongolia. Data in Brief, Volume 26, October 2019, 104452.

Stacey, N., Mudara, C., Ng, S.W., Van Walbeek, C., Hofman, K. and Edoka, I. 2019.  Sugar-based beverage taxes and prices: Evidence from South Africa’s Health Promotion Levy, Social Science and Medicine 238. 

Stoklosa M., Goma F., Nargis N., et al. 2019. Price, tax and tobacco product substitution in Zambia: findings from the ITC Zambia Surveys. Tobacco Control 2019;28:s45-s52. https://tobaccocontrol.bmj.com/content/28/Suppl_1/s45

Van der Zee, K., Van Walbeek, C. and Magadla, S. 2019.  An analysis of cheap cigarettes in South Africa, Trends in Organised Crime. 23, pages 242–262(2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12117-019-09372-9.

Van Walbeek, C., and Kilumelume, M. 2019. An analysis of Media 24’s “Economist of the Year” forecasting competition. Studies in Economics and Econometrics, 43(1): 17-38.

Van Walbeek, C. and Paraje, G. 2019. Economics of tobacco control (part 3): evidence from the ITC Project (editorial), Tobacco Control, 28: s1-s2.

Vellios, N., van Walbeek, C.P. and Ross, H. 2019. Illicit Cigarette Trade in South Africa: 2002 – 2017. Tobacco Control. 0:1–9.


Blecher, E., Liber, A., Van Walbeek, C. and Rossouw, L. 2018. An international analysis of the price and affordability of beer, PLoS ONE, 13(12): e0208831. 

Chelwa, G., Nguyen, T.T.H, Pham, N.T., Ross, H. Le, T.T., Pham, T.H.A. 2018. Do Beer and Wine Respond to Price and Tax Changes in Vietnam? Evidence from the Vietnam Household Living Standards Survey. BMJ Open 2019;9:e027076. doi:10.1136/ bmjopen-2018-027076.

Filby, S. and van Walbeek, C.P. 2018. Analysis of Article 6 (tax and price measures to reduce the demand for tobacco products) of the WHO’s Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Tobacco Control. doi: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2018-054462.

John, R.M. and Ross, H. 2018. Consumption of Illicit Cigarettes in India: Findings from a Retail Survey. Tobacco Control. 27:684-688.

Little, M. and Van Walbeek, C. 2018. Restaurant smoking sections in South Africa and the perceived impact of the proposed smoke-free laws: Evidence from a nationally representative survey. South African Medical Journal 108(3):240-244.

Norashidah Mohamed Nor, Hana Ross, Wency Bui Kher Thinng, Judhiana Abdul Ghani, Norayana Hassan, and Nizam Baharom. 2018. Malaysia Abridged SimSmoke Model - Towards Achieving 2025 and 2045 Smoking Prevalence Targets. Malaysian Journal of Medicine and Health Sciences. July 2018. 

Ross, H., Eads, M. and Yates, M. 2018. Why Governments Cannot Afford Codentify to Support Their Track and Trace Solution. Tobacco Control. 27:706-708. doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2017-053970.

Ross, H., Moussa, L., Harris, T. and Ajodheea, R. 2018.  The Heterogeneous Impact of a Successful Tobacco Control Campaign: A Case Study of Mauritius. Tobacco Control 2018;27:83-89. doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2016-053412.

Vellios, N., Ross, H. and Perucic, A. 2018. Trends in cigarette demand and supply in Africa. PLOS One. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0202467

Vellios, N. and Van Walbeek, C.P. 2018. Self-reported alcohol use and binge drinking in South Africa: Evidence from the National Income Dynamics Study 2014/15. South African Medical Journal 108(1):33-39.


Linegar, D.J., and van Walbeek, C. 2017. The effect of excise tax increases on cigarette prices in South Africa. Tobacco Control. doi:10.1136/ tobaccocontrol-2016-053340

Lubbe, M., Van Walbeek, C.P. and Vellios, N. 2017. The prevalence of fetal alcohol syndrome and its impact on a child’s classroom performance: a case study of a rural South African school. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.

MacKenzie, R., Ross, H. and Lee, K. 2017. Preparing ourselves to become an international organization: Thailand Tobacco Monopoly’s regional and global strategies, Global Public Health, 12:3, 351-366, DOI: 10.1080/17441692.2016.1273369.

Mukong, A.K. 2017. Peer Networks and Tobacco Consumption in South Africa. South African Journal of Economics. 85(3):341-367.

Mukong, A., Van Walbeek, C.P. and Ross, H. 2017.  Lifestyle and income-related inequality in health in South Africa. International Journal for Equity in Health.

Ross, H., Tesche, J. and Vellios, N. 2017. Undermining government tax policies: Common legal strategies employed by the tobacco industry in response to tobacco tax increases. Preventive Medicine. 105: S19-S22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2017.06.012

Ross, H. 2017. Tracking and tracing tobacco products in Kenya. Preventive Medicine. Volume 105, Supplement, December 2017, Pages s15-s18. doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2017.04.025 Click here to access the policy brief for this paper.

Stacey, N., Van Walbeek, C., Maboshe, M., Tugendhaft, A. and Hofman, K. 2017.  Energy drink consumption and marketing in South Africa. Preventive Medicine 105: S32-S36.


Adeniji, F., Bamgboye, E. and Van Walbeek, C.P. 2016.  Smoking in Nigeria: Estimates from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) 2012. Journal of Scientific Research and Reports.

Chelwa, G., Van Walbeek, C.P. and Blecher, E.H. 2016. Evaluating South Africa’s tobacco control policy using a synthetic control method, Tobacco Control, 26:509–517. doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2016-053011.

Kruger, L., van Walbeek, C. and Vellios, N. 2016. Waterpipe smoking among Western Cape students. American Journal of Health Behavior. Volume 40, Number 4, pp. 416-426.

Movsisyan, N.K., Sochor, O., Kralikova, E., Cifkova, R., Ross, H. and Lopez-Jimenez, F. 2016. Current and past smoking patterns in a Central European urban population: a cross-sectional study in a high-burden country. BMC Public Health 16:571, 15 July 2016. DOI: 10.1186/s12889-016-3216-5 Click here to access the policy brief for this paper.

Russell, C. and Van Walbeek, C.P. 2016. How does a change in the excise tax on beer impact beer retail prices in South Africa? South African Journal of Economics 84(4): 555-573.

Vellios N. and van Walbeek, C. 2016. Determinants of regular smoking initiation in South Africa using survival analysis, BMJ Open, 6(7): 1-9.


Chaloupka, F.J., Edwards, S.M., Ross, H., Diaz, M., Kurti, M. Xu, X., Pesko, M., Merriman, D. and DeLong, H. 2015.Preventing and Reducing Illicit Tobacco Trade in the United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2015. 

Dalinjong, P.A., Welaga, P., Azonga, D.K. et al. 2015. A retrospective analysis of the association between tobacco smoking and deaths from respiratory and cardiovascular diseases in the Kassena-Nankana districts of Northern Ghana

Joossens, L., Gilmore, A., Stoklosa, M. and Ross, H. 2015. Assessment of the European Union’s illicit trade agreements with the four major Transnational Tobacco Companies.Tobacco Control. doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2014-052218

Ross, H. 2015. Commentary on Chaloupka et al. 2014. Consumers Surplus and Cost-Benefit Analysis of Tobacco Use in Countries in the Earlier Stages of the Tobacco Epidemic. Tobacco Control 2015; 24:121-122; Published Online First: 6 Jan 2015, doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2014-052100.

Ross, H., Vellios, N., Clegg Smith, K., Ferguson, J. and Cohen, J. 2015. A closer look at “Cheap White” cigarettes. Tobacco Control. Published Online First: 28 September 2015. doi:10.1136/ tobaccocontrol-2015- 052540

Salloum, R.G., Goma, F., Chelwa, G., Cheng, X., Zulu, R., Kaai, S.C., Quah, A.C.K., Thrasher, J.F. and Fong, G.T. 2015. Cigarette price and other factors associated with brand choice and brand loyalty in Zambia: findings from the ITC Zambia Survey. Tobacco Control.

Van Walbeek, C.P. 2015.  The economics of tobacco control: evidence from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Policy Evaluation Project (editorial), Tobacco Control. 24:iii1-iii3 doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2015-052425.

Van Walbeek, C.P. and Shai, L. 2015. Are the tobacco industry’s claims about the size of the illicit cigarette market credible? The case of South Africa, Tobacco Control.24:e142-e146.


Blecher, E. and Drope, J. 2014. The rewards and risks of regional tobacco tax harmonization. Tobacco Control.

Hoang Anh, P.T., Thu, L.T., Ross, H., Quynh Anh, N. and Linh, B.N. 2014. Direct and Indirect Costs of Smoking in Vietnam. Tobacco Control doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2014-051821.

Van Walbeek, C. 2014. Measuring changes in the illicit cigarette market using government revenue data: the example of South Africa. Tobacco Control 23:e69-e74.

Van Walbeek, C. and Shai, L. 2014. Are the tobacco industry’s claims about the size of the illicit cigarette market credible? The case of South Africa. Tobacco Control.


Blecher, E., Liber, A.C., Chaussard, M. and Fedewa, S. 2013. Smokeless tobacco use in Madagascar. Nicotine and Tobacco Research.Volume 16, Issue Suppl_1, 1 January 2014, Pages S56–S64

Blecher, E., Liber, A. and Ross, H. 2013. Euromonitor data on the illicit trade in cigarettes. Tobacco Control.

Smith, L.C., Case, J.M. and Van Walbeek, C.P. 2013. Assessing the effectiveness of academic development programmes: A statistical analysis of graduation rates across three programmes, South African Journal for Higher Education.

Tam, J. and Van Walbeek, C.P. 2013. Tobacco control in Namibia: The importance of government capacity, media coverage, and industry interference, Tobacco Control.

Van Walbeek, C.P. 2013. How accurate are South African macroeconomic forecasts? Journal for Studies in Economics and Econometrics 37(3): 1-23.

Van Walbeek, C.P., Blecher, E.H., Gilmore, A. and Ross, H. 2013. Price and tax measures and illicit trade in the FCTC: what we know and what research is required, Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 15(4): 767-776.


Narula, S.K., Berg, C., Escoffery C. and Blecher, E. 2012.  College student smoking in South Africa: Smoking patterns, attitudes, and perceived consequences of tobacco policies. Journal of Addiction Research and Therapy. S1:005.

Rankin, N., Schoer, V., Sebastiao, C. and Van Walbeek, C.P. 2012. Predictors of academic performance: National Senior Certificate versus National Benchmark Test, South African Journal for Higher Education 26(3): 564-585.

Tam, J. and van Walbeek, C. 2012. Government capacity, a regional trade agreement, and tobacco control in Africa the Namibian experience. Tobacco Control.